There is missing files for the kernel. Indeed, the folder
/lib/modules/3.10.96/build is a symlink to
/home/jenkins/odroid-xu3-workspace/build which does not exist in the given image.
Plus, there should be the APT source to XU3 repo (same as XU4 for the software).
As root (not sudo)
# cd /etc/apt/sources.d/
# wget http://oph.mdrjr.net/meveric/sources.lists/meveric-all-XU3.list
To have build folder to build my modules, I just upgraded the kernel to
3.10.103+ via ODroid Utility and downloaded the packages